Constraints and Difficulties of the Research Exercise Considerable difficulties were experienced in obtaining what was considered to be an adequate response from headteachers in Pakistan. Questions 3 and 4 were aimed at ascertaining the kind of curriculum existing in special schools in Pakistan, and the authority responsible for planning the curriculum. How effective is the spiraling curriculum (continually building upon skills in later lessons) to our students? 4.57 5 7. Introducing change and innovation in schools is a difficult task. Carter (1982), the Programme Director of the Schools Council Report on Curriculum Development in Special Education, observes how teachers in Britain have often found it helpful to know how their colleagues tackle different problems creating their own solutions and opportunities.

%%EOF In consequence the Economic Survey (Pakistan Planning and Development Division 1991-92) has it that major current emphasis is upon improving the provision of schooling, enhancing the performance of the executive agencies, and strengthening and consolidating social welfare and rehabilitative services.

A constraining circumstance is that, as recent reports indicate, Pakistan’s children face poor performance on social indicators, and have a health status that continues to be deficient.

Information on the identity of the authorities responsible for planning special education in Pakistan, and the extent of headteacher and teacher participation in this planning. 28 41Headteachers.

Functional Curriculum andFunctional Curriculum and Academic Standards-based Curriculum: Competing for ... preferences interests and needs Exposure all throughpreferences, interests and needs. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Discussion The Type of Curriculum Table 1 shows that although 50 percent of pupils in over half the special schools in Pakistan (represented in the sample) are following the curriculum and examination system of the Federal Capital or Province, 61 percent of the schools do not have any pupils following a reduced or modified version of this curriculum. 22 32 Content in the Curriculum A large majority of headteachers (86 percent) give the highest priority to functional academics in the curriculum for pupils with special needs (Table 4). The therapeutic role of these activities in teaching children with special needs is now well recognised (Stott 1966, Galloway and Goodwin 1979, Wilson and Evans 1980); and as Hewett (1968) and Rutter et al (1970) point out, the teaching of literacy and numeracy can in itself be therapeutic. The identification of difficulties experienced by headteachers in achieving a balance in the curriculum for pupils with special educational needs between: a. subjects specific to children with special needs b. subjects which appear in the national/provincial curriculum in normal schools. (The role of parents in the education of children with special needs is increasingly emphasised in Western literature, for example see Younghusband et al 1970, Warnock 1978, Kirk and Gallagher 1979, Galloway 1979, and Tomlinson 1982).
Reports of life skills training for students with intellectual disabilities in and out of school.

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