When those schools that had moved or closed were eliminated, the response rate from the actual, as opposed to the hypothetical sample, was just over 75 percent.
The overall aim of the study was to provide a coherent picture of the state of special education in Pakistan. These are, with estimated percentages: physical 40%, mental 30%, visual 20% and hearing impairment 10% (Pakistan Ministry of Health, Special Education and Social Welfare 1981). Table 3, shows the authority responsible for planning the curriculum and the participation of headteachers and teachers in this task.
Question 4 also sought to specify to what extent headteachers and teachers participated in planning the curriculum.
National Council for Special Education Children with Special Educational Needs 5 Foreword One of the many functions of the National Council for Special Education (NCSE) is to . Independent philosophy on special education is therefore in its infancy in Pakistan, and even so is still clearly influenced by the Warnock Report (1978). However, Swann (1982) points out that physically handicapped children often require a special curriculum because they are also academically less able, and this needs to be taken into account in planning a curriculum for these pupils. Since the ordinary curriculum itself is not suited to the needs of pupils, a radical reappraisal of the curriculum in special schools in Pakistan is required. ... Students who complete this course of study receive a Certificate of Completion.
However, the figures in Table 3 show that headteachers accept this responsibility only 41 percent of the time. The terminology used in special education is also in need of attention. Since some headteachers did not respond to certain items (which are therefore considered as missing values), the totals and percentages are not the same in all tables. 5)����躘�8�`b3h �Y!ű!��a� ��5��G+Ѥ��Ɣ��S�a��b63D$
This is the second edition of an information booklet for parents/guardians and is TYPE OF CURRICULUMNUMBER OF SCHOOLS% OF SCHOOLS% OF PUPILS FOLLOWING CURRICULUMCurriculum and 25360examination461 -25of the Federal 1126 -50Capital or4651 - 75Province152176 - 992130100A reduced or43610modified version16231 - 25of the curriculum3426 - 50set by the23 51 - 75Federal Capital0076 - 99or Province69100A specially adapted 32460curriculum15211 - 25which emphasises5726 - 50the acquisition of life 2351 - 75skills and the skills 6976 - 99of self maintenance1014100 The data obtained for the type of curriculum were further analysed in terms of type of disability, and the results presented in Table 2, indicate that while nine out of 10 schools catering for the mentally disabled have no pupils following the curriculum and examination system of the Federal Capital or the Province, a large number of schools catering for all other types of disability have a high percentage of their pupils (76 to 100 percent) following such a curriculum. Taking into consideration these difficulties and constraints on research in developing nations, the response obtained to the questionnaire was considered adequate, particularly in view of the non-availability of many of the schools to which the questionnaire was sent. Proposals for improving the transition process of young people with intellectual disabilities in Spain: insights from focus groups of professionals, young people and their families. You are currently offline. In view of the agricultural economy of Pakistan, greater emphasis needs to be placed on rural science and environmental studies.
Swann (1982) points out that subjects may be taught in the special curriculum which are not a part of the ordinary curriculum, and it is likely that the concentration on basic subjects will mean less time for teaching these broader subjects. Warnock (1978) places great emphasis on the type of curriculum required for pupils with special educational needs, and Brennan (1979) and Ainscow (1988 a, b) point out that the problem in special education is to match curricular resources to the needs of pupils. = Hearing Imapairment P.D. The importance of the teacher's role as the active agent in handling and communicating the curriculum is generally acknowledged (for example, Barrow 1984), and is a particularly important area of investigation for future research in special education in Pakistan.
Main Objectives of the Questionnaire The overall aim of the Study was to provide a coherent picture of the state of special education in Pakistan. Handbook of Adolescent Transition Education for Youth with Disabilities.
The National Policy also proposes that training centres be set up in each provincial capital to provide job specific training along the lines of the National Training Centre for the Disabled which currently operates in Islamabad.
However due to the difficulties involved in catering for such a variety of needs, perhaps curriculum development in special education in Pakistan has not received the attention that it deserves. ĞÏà¡±á > şÿ a c şÿÿÿ ^ _ ` ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿì¥Á 7 ğ¿ •Ë bjbjUU "® 7| 7| •Ç ÿÿ ÿÿ ÿÿ l ( b b b b , 8b \ ( ö¾ À e e e e e e e e u¾ w¾ w¾ w¾ w¾ w¾ w¾ $ ¶À ÖÂ º ›¾ e e e e e ›¾ ¸w e e °¾ ¸w ¸w ¸w e ^ e e u¾ ¸w e u¾ ¸w ¸ ¸w py Ş 7œ ò y¤ e ”e tÖ=´vÁ( ä^ b şn ’ )£ ¨ y¤ ü Æ¾ 0 ö¾ Ñ£ ¨ �Ã �w ( �Ã y¤ ¸w ( ( Ù The Curriculum in Special Needs Education in Pakistani schools David Fontana University of Wales and Zahida Lari North East Wales Institute The education of children with special needs in Pakistan is an area which is grossly neglected and in need of urgent attention.
Constraints and Difficulties of the Research Exercise Considerable difficulties were experienced in obtaining what was considered to be an adequate response from headteachers in Pakistan. Questions 3 and 4 were aimed at ascertaining the kind of curriculum existing in special schools in Pakistan, and the authority responsible for planning the curriculum. How effective is the spiraling curriculum (continually building upon skills in later lessons) to our students? 4.57 5 7. Introducing change and innovation in schools is a difficult task. Carter (1982), the Programme Director of the Schools Council Report on Curriculum Development in Special Education, observes how teachers in Britain have often found it helpful to know how their colleagues tackle different problems creating their own solutions and opportunities.
%%EOF In consequence the Economic Survey (Pakistan Planning and Development Division 1991-92) has it that major current emphasis is upon improving the provision of schooling, enhancing the performance of the executive agencies, and strengthening and consolidating social welfare and rehabilitative services.
A constraining circumstance is that, as recent reports indicate, Pakistan’s children face poor performance on social indicators, and have a health status that continues to be deficient.
Information on the identity of the authorities responsible for planning special education in Pakistan, and the extent of headteacher and teacher participation in this planning. 28 41Headteachers.
Functional Curriculum andFunctional Curriculum and Academic Standards-based Curriculum: Competing for ... preferences interests and needs Exposure all throughpreferences, interests and needs. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Discussion The Type of Curriculum Table 1 shows that although 50 percent of pupils in over half the special schools in Pakistan (represented in the sample) are following the curriculum and examination system of the Federal Capital or Province, 61 percent of the schools do not have any pupils following a reduced or modified version of this curriculum. 22 32 Content in the Curriculum A large majority of headteachers (86 percent) give the highest priority to functional academics in the curriculum for pupils with special needs (Table 4). The therapeutic role of these activities in teaching children with special needs is now well recognised (Stott 1966, Galloway and Goodwin 1979, Wilson and Evans 1980); and as Hewett (1968) and Rutter et al (1970) point out, the teaching of literacy and numeracy can in itself be therapeutic. The identification of difficulties experienced by headteachers in achieving a balance in the curriculum for pupils with special educational needs between: a. subjects specific to children with special needs b. subjects which appear in the national/provincial curriculum in normal schools. (The role of parents in the education of children with special needs is increasingly emphasised in Western literature, for example see Younghusband et al 1970, Warnock 1978, Kirk and Gallagher 1979, Galloway 1979, and Tomlinson 1982).
Reports of life skills training for students with intellectual disabilities in and out of school.
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