, Great horned owls seem to be the most long-living owl in North America. South American great horned owls typically have a smaller white throat patch, often unseen unless actively displaying, and rarely display the white area on the chest. The great horned owl gains an advantage by nesting earlier than any other raptor in its range (indeed any bird), as it is able to exploit the other raptors as food while in a more vulnerable state as their own nestlings have become well developed. Errington, P. L., F. Hamerstrom, and F. N. Hamerstrom, Jr. 1940. Rohner, C., Krebs, C. J., Hunter, D. B., & Currie, D. C. (2000). for.
The largest swath of egg-laying owls from central California to South Carolina to as far north as Ohio and Massachusetts is from late February to early April. Although locally dependent on the hares as their main food, northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), red-tailed hawks and golden eagles apparently do not have as large of an impact on the hares, nor do mammalian carnivore generalists that also kill many hares, like the fisher, bobcat, wolverine (Gulo gulo), coyote and larger varieties (i.e. Bosakowski, T., R. Speiser, and D. G. Smith.
A crop is a loose sac in the throat that serves as storage for food for later consumption. The occasionally invertebrate prey taken largely consists of common, large insects such as various beetles, crickets, grasshoppers, water bugs and katydids, some of which the great horned owl has even reportedly caught via "hawking", i.e. The peak wavelengths that are observed by the cones is 555 nm and the research suggests that the great horned owl has relatively weak color vision, especially compared to other bird species. They are owl pellets. , The combination of the species' bulk, prominent ear tufts and barred plumage distinguishes it through much of the range, but it may be easily confused with the lesser or Magellanic horned owl (B. magellanicus), which may overlap in range.
Hayward, J. L., J. G. Galusha, and G. Frias. , Typically, great horned owls are highly sedentary, often capable of utilizing a single territory throughout their mature lives. wolves (Canis lupus), cougars (Puma concolor) and bears (Ursus ssp.)).  Rodents and invertebrates may be caught on foot around the base of bushes, through grassy areas, and near culverts and other human structures in range and farm habitat. Ano ang pinakamaliit na kontinente sa mundo?  Rural owls use old raptor nests more frequently than urban birds, who utilize crow or squirrel nests.
B. Occasionally, nestlings and fledglings will fall from the nest too early to escape or to competently defend themselves and fall prey to foxes, bobcat, coyotes, or wild or feral cats.
, The stage at which eggs are laid is variable across North America.
When prey is swallowed whole, owls regurgitate pellets of bone and other non-digestible bits about 6 to 10 hours later, usually in the same location where the prey was consumed.  Although a stable and highly abundant food source, a diet consisting of primarily rats can be harmful to urban great horned owls due to bioaccumulation of rodenticides.  The great horned owl has cylindrical eyes which creates more distance from the lens of the eye to the retina, which allows it to act more like a telephoto lens for farther distance sight compared to that possible from round eyes.
, The great horned owl is the provincial bird of Alberta..
This audio story is brought to you by BirdNote, a partner of the National Audubon Society. In the Yukon, adults on territory had an average annual survival rate of 90.5%.
Owls swallow their prey whole but they can't digest much of what they swallow. By late autumn, first-year birds look similar to adults but with a slightly warmer, reddish tinge, less well developed ear tufts and a smaller white throat patch. Even tropical great horned owls have feathered legs and feet.  In one case, a great horned owl was the likely killer of an adult female fisher (Martes pennanti), though young ones are typically taken.
On rare occasions, fish are taken including goldfish (Carassius auratus), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), bullheads (Ameiurus ssp.
, Many warrior-based tribes of Native Americans admired the great horned owl for their "strength, courage and beauty".  This species' "horns" are tufts of feathers, called plumicorns. While the northern weighs from 90 to 120 g (3.2 to 4.2 oz), other pocket gophers hunted average from 95 to 545 g (0.209 to 1.202 lb) in mass. Eastern and western screech owls may be most vulnerable since they prefer similar wooded edge habitat. The National Audubon Society protects birds and the places they need, today and tomorrow, throughout the Americas using science, advocacy, education, and on-the-ground conservation. 77% of the ducks in that study were juveniles, the largest duck being a male mallard (Anas platyrhnychos) weighing approximately 1,250 g (2.76 lb), but nearly all the coots were adults. Kittredge, V. C., Wilson, P. W., & Caire, W. (2007). If receptive, the female hoots back when the pair meet but is more subdued in both her hoot and display. A roosting owl commonly leaves visual clues to its whereabouts: a scattering of furry, oval objects on the earth below its perch.
The disc-like shape of their faces also helps to direct the sounds they hear toward their ears. Smith et al.
 The average foot span of a fully spread foot, from talon to talon, is around 20 cm (7.9 in), as compared to 8 cm (3.1 in) in long-eared owls, 13 to 15 cm (5.1 to 5.9 in) in barn owls, and 18 cm (7.1 in) in the great grey owl. At the lowest point of the hare's cycle, summer diets consisted of only 0–16% snowshoe hare in Alberta and 12.7% in Yukon.
Barn Owl pellets are black when fresh and gradually turn grey as they dry out.  The Pima of the southwest believed that owls were reincarnations of slain warriors who fly about by night.  The average egg width is 46.5 mm (1.83 in), the average length is 55 mm (2.2 in) and the average weight is 51 g (1.8 oz), although mass could be slightly higher elsewhere because this figure is from Los Angeles County, CA where the owls are relatively small.  Less is known about relations with the snowy owl, which may compete with great horned owls for food while invading south for the winter. The contents of a bird's pellet depend on its diet, but can include the exoskeletons of insects, indigestible plant matter, bones, fur, feathers, bills, claws, and teeth.
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 In general, great horned owls are most vulnerable in the early stages of life, although few species press attacks on the owl's nests due to the ferocious defensive abilities of the parents.  The Magellanic horned owl was once considered a subspecies of the great horned, but is now almost universally considered a distinct species, as is supported by genetic materials, with the great horned being the paraspecies.  For owls found in more tropical climates, the dates of the breeding season are somewhat undefined.
, Small rodents form the great majority of great horned owl prey by number. Ornithologists may collect one species' pellets over time to analyze the seasonal variation in its eating habits. Foxes produce dog-like droppings that are usually pointy at one end and full of fur, feathers, tiny bones, seeds and berries. In Brazil, white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris) were found in 12% of pellets, but all specimens appeared to be juveniles each weighing about 1,000 g (2.2 lb).
Ornithologists examining pellets have discovered unusual items in them—even bird bands that were once attached to a smaller species that was consumed by the predator bird.
, Occasionally, great horned owls may be killed by their own prey.
 Over 500 species have been identified as great horned owl prey, with dozens more identified only to genus or general type (especially numerous invertebrates) and presumably several more unknown from their relatively little-studied populations in the Neotropics. In East Texas, the 159 g (5.6 oz) hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) is the most commonly recorded prey species.  They nest in a wider variety of nest sites than any other North American bird. , Casting will occur at the same time daily, provided that hawks are flown at the same time daily. Kilgore, D.L.
A pellet, in ornithology, is the mass of undigested parts of a bird's food that some bird species occasionally regurgitate.  However, great horned owls can learn to target certain prey during daylight in the afternoon when it is more vulnerable, such as eastern fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) while they're building their leaf nests and chuckawallas (Sauromalus ater) sunning themselves on desert rocks.
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The legs may also be removed, as may (in some bird prey) the wings.
 In mountainous or hilly areas, especially in canyons of the southwest and Rocky Mountains, cliff ledges, small caves, and other sheltered depressions may be used.  Based on the development of the bursa, great horned owls reach sexual maturity at two years of age.
Llinas-Gutirrez, J., Arnaud, G. & Acevedo, M. (1991).
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